Ok this will be a short post relating to this.
No, we do not have one single answer which will satisfy everyone, least of all the atheists of the world, otherwise they probably wouldn’t be atheists any longer.
But I think we do have several different, perhaps maybe even contradictory answers that can give comfort to the faithful in times of grief and agony. Different answers for different suffering and different people.
The first I can think of is that we can be united to Christ in our suffering, as we were told today, Jesus was beaten and humiliated repeatedly, then scourged and finally was crucified. All this agony was of course the consequence of the cruelty of a world in thrall to the devil. But as Christians when we suffer we become closer to Christ who suffered for us, is there anything better than being close to Christ?
There is the simple fact that when our life is going swimmingly we can often take it for granted rather than thank God for it, but when we suffer we are much quicker to implore God to give us strength and courage to carry on.
There is also a perfectly Russian understanding which states that the world has to have no proof of God, otherwise there would be no need to have faith, thus we must suffer.
Fr Longenecker also pointed out in a different way how suffering points to God.
There are probably many other different ways people of faith can come to understand suffering. Did the Pope not delve into some of these avenues of thought for the sake of not scaring the faithless? I hope not.